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ashokcsn_2000
08-13-2004, 05:44 PM
With the independence day coming up it would be fit for us to know abt the Indian History its richness. This series will cover that. It is not just a summary of ur history textbooks, but something that we all should cherish.




Harappan Civilization - The Beginning as Know (3000-1500 BC)

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The first people seem to have reached India from Africa around 40,000 BC. At first they were hunters and gatherers, like other people around the world at this time. But by around 4000 BC, these people had begun farming and by 2500 BC settled in the Indus river valley, where they began to live in cities and use irrigation to water their fields. This is a little later than in West Asia, probably because India was not as crowded as West Asia at this time. A lot of people think that the reason they began to farm, and then build cities was that a gradual warming trend was making it harder to get water, and harder to find wild plants to eat, every year. So every year more and more people moved into the Indus river valley, where there was still plenty of water. When it got really crowded there, people began to build cities.

There were two main cities that we know of, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, about 400 kilometers (250 miles) away. Both are in modern Pakistan. The people of these cities lived in stone houses two and three stories high, and had sewage systems. They used bronze tools. They may have learned to make bronze from the Sumerians.
The Harappa people used an early form of writing based on hieroglyphs, like the Egyptians. But we can't read it, because there isn't very much left of it.

By around 2000 BC, though, the Harappan civilization had collapsed. We don't know what caused this collapse. Most people think the most likely reason is that the warming trend continued until there wasn't enough water even in the Indus river valley to support these cities and the farmers who fed them. Some people probably starved to death, while others moved up into the hills, where it was cooler and some rain fell.

But by 1500 BC, the Indus river valley saw an invasion of Indo-Europeans, like similar invasions in Greece and Italy a little earlier.

courtesy: History For Kids

ashokcsn_2000
08-13-2004, 06:04 PM
Aryan (1500-800 BC)


About 1500 BC, India was invaded by Indo-European people. These people came from the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian sea. Between 2500 and 2000 BC, many Indo-Europeans migrated all over Eurasia. Some went to Europe and became the Romans and the Greeks, some settled in Turkey and became the Hittites. Others migrated south-east instead. Some of them stopped in Iran, while others continued south-east to Pakistan and India. The slow migration did not arrive in northern India until about 1500 BC. In India, the Indo-Europeans are usually called the Aryans.

Some people have disputed this arrival of the Indo-Europeans, and if you search the web you will find some sites saying that it never happened. But there are written records of the language that these Indo-European people brought with them to India, Sanskrit. We can read Sanskrit, and we can easily see that many words in Sanskrit are basically the same as in other Indo-European languages.

In addition to their language, the Aryans brought their gods with them to India. These gods form the basis of the Rig Veda and other sagas which were first written down in Sanskrit.


Indus River

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The Aryans first settled along the Indus River, in the same place where the Harappa people had lived. They settled down and mixed with the local Indian people. They lived there from about 1500 BC to about 800 BC. It seems to be at this time that the caste system got started in India.

About 800 BC, the Aryans learned how to use iron for weapons and tools. They probably learned to work iron from the people of West Asia, the Assyrians, who had learned it from the Indo-European Hittites. Once the Aryans learned how to use iron, they used their new weapons to conquer more of India, and moved to the south and east into the Ganges river valley. They settled there not long after 800 BC.

After the Aryans moved into the Ganges valley about 800 BC, they were further from West Asia and had less contact with West Asian people. They began to mix more with the Indian people and the Indian gods became mixed with the Aryan gods. The Aryan conquest of the Ganges is remembered in the Mahabharata, first told about this time.



Ganges River

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But still the Aryans did not control all of India. Southern India was ruled by a bunch of independent kings who did not have to do what the Aryans wanted. Stories of fights between the Aryans and the southerners are told in the Ramayana.

In the 500's BC, part of north-western India (modern Pakistan) was conquered by the Persians under their kings Cyrus and Darius. The Persians were also Indo-Europeans, but they had left their homeland later and settled in modern Iran. But the Persians never really controlled India much- they made the Indians pay tribute in gold to Persia, but they didn't really tell them what to do.

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Persian archers

Meanwhile, the Aryans continued to rule north-eastern India. In the 400's BC, this was where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, lived and started the faith of Buddhism.

ashokcsn_2000
08-13-2004, 06:11 PM
Contact with Greeks

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In 325 BC, northern India was conquered by Alexander the Great, a Macedonian (and also an Indo-European) king. Alexander had already conquered the whole Persian Empire, and he also conquered northern India (modern Pakistan) as part of that. Alexander didn't stay very long though. He left after a couple of years and went back to Babylon, where he died.

Still, Alexander had a lasting effect on India. Alexander left behind several thousand Greek soldiers, to keep an eye on things. These soldiers had with them writers, artists, sculptors, and teachers, and they built Greek cities in Afghanistan and in the Indus valley. The Indians learned about a lot of Greek culture this way.

Shy
08-13-2004, 06:19 PM
Great info Ashok.. mm.. india'la immigrant indians, native indians'nu kooda iruka :think: :think: mudincha tell us more abt that what to know.. i always thought the moguls where the onces u invaded us and settled here and thus the muslim population in India... but other than that :think:

Anyways.. good information ashok !!! Thanks much :b:

Shy

bharanishan
08-13-2004, 06:24 PM
hey great infos ashok....itha padikka padikka padikka ...palaiya history lessons ellam refresh pannura maathiri oru feel.....10th classoda history-kku oru mulukku potathu ....

Great work Ashok....... :b:

ferny
08-13-2004, 07:14 PM
Harappan civilization is history for kids? I didn't know some of that stuff.

Great pictures and good information. Thanks Ashok :)

ashokcsn_2000
08-13-2004, 07:19 PM
Mauryan Empire (324 - 184 BC) http://www.2and2.net/Uploads/Images/greatemptn.jpg

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After Alexander went back to Babylon in 324 BC, a man named Chandragupta was able to overthrow the old Aryan kingdom of Nanda and form a big new empire over all of northern India and into Afghanistan.

Chandragupta died in 298 BC and was succeeded by his son Bindusara. Bindusara's son Ashoka made the Mauryan Empire even stronger, ruling some of southern India as well as the north.

But Ashoka's victories at Orissa were so bloody and awful, that (at least according to tradition) after that battle he gave up warfare for the rest of his life. Ashoka converted from traditional Indian Hinduism to the new faith of Buddhism, and he used his power to convince millions of other people to convert to Buddhism too, all over Central Asia.

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Ashoka Stupa - now the national Emblem

After Ashoka died in 231 BC, though, his sons and grandsons were not as strong rulers as he was, and the Mauryan Empire gradually fell apart.

vasan
08-13-2004, 07:23 PM
Good info Ashok.. :P

Would be nice to add some boo resources too.. For those of us who would want to go back and do some indepth reading.. some of my all time fav's are.. Could get the complete ref, if any one is interested..

Bhasham's The wonder that was India
Thappar's History of India
Nehru's Discovery
Sastri - South indian history (read only excerpts.. out of print.. :( )

And a few more..

Good job.. :b:

Vasan

ashokcsn_2000
08-13-2004, 07:38 PM
(100BC - 324 AD) Period of Small Kingdoms

Between about 100 BC, when the Mauryan Empire collapsed, and 319 AD, when the Guptan Empire was founded, India was split up into a lot of small kingdoms. These small kingdoms were weak and so they were often invaded by stronger neighbors. The Greeks came back in 150 BC and conquered the Indus Valley again, but they didn't stay for long. The Chinese, under the strong Han Dynasty, invaded frequently. And the Parthians and Sassanians sometimes attacked as well.

Buddhism was very strong in India at this time. And the concepts left by Bhudda spread east with the invasion of Chinese emppires.

ashokcsn_2000
08-13-2004, 07:57 PM
Ashoka The Great

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Asoka was the greatest reign of Ancient India. His grandfather Chandragupta, first generation Maurya Magadha had established the first Indian empire. When Asoka inherited the throne it achieved the conquest of the Indian peninsula. During its conquests, however, Ashoka became thus disgusted by the cruelty of the war qu' it gave up there. He adopted the peaceful doctrines of Buddhism and declared that henceforth its conquests should be conquests of religion. Everywhere on his grounds he installed inscriptions preparing the lessons of Buddha, and of the missionaries were sent to Kashmir, *****, and in Ceylon. But little after death of Ashoka Mauryans' empire disaggregated.
He is famous for the infamous battle of Kalinga where hundreds of soldiers, men and women died that led to Ashok adopting bhuddism.

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Sanchi Stupa and Torana

ashokcsn_2000
08-13-2004, 08:06 PM
Bhuddism and India
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In the 500's BC, during the later part of the Aryan period in India, the idea of reincarnation became very strong among Hindus. Most people believed that after you died, you would be reborn in another form, and then reborn again, and again, forever. But then people started to not like this idea. They didn’t want reincarnation to just go on and on forever. Wasn’t there any way to stop this; to get off the wheel of reincarnation and just be?

A young Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama Buddha had an idea. He thought that you could get off the wheel of reincarnation if you were good and pure enough. He refused to be a prince anymore, and tried to spend his life being good and pure so he could get off the wheel. Gautama Buddha had many followers during his lifetime, and after he died he had even more.
At first, most Buddhists were in India. But soon Buddhism spread to China and other parts of East Asia. By the 600’s AD most of the Buddhists in India had gone back to being Hindus again. They still remembered Buddha, but as one of many Hindu gods.

In China, on the other hand, Buddhism got stronger and stronger. Soon most of the Buddhists were in China and not India.

ashokcsn_2000
08-13-2004, 08:29 PM
Ancient South India

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India, south of the Vindhya mountains and the Narmada river, was known as Deccan. Further south was the land of the Dravidas (or Tamils). From ancient times, these lands were home to Indians of non-Aryan origin. The History prior to 25BC is pretty unclear and there are vague recordings of the dates and years and there is a lot to be decripted. The best known is of the sangam and the Tamil literature.

Sangam

The first sangam(or gathering of Gods, kings, bards and sages to compose works of literature) lasted for 4440 years in then Madurai.The second
for 3700 years in Kapatapuram.Works produced in both these were lost in the great flood, except for the grammatical work of TholkaPPiyam of the
2nd sangam.

The works of the third sangam (1850 years,vada Madurai),is what is all we have of the sangam literature and can be dated to 100BC - AD250.

All the works of the 3rd sangam are poems (2381 in number)of varying lines(3-800).Some poets(some were women too like Auvayar) we know by
their names others by epithets(Eg.Kakkaipadiniyar-one who sang of the crow),and others are anonymous.

The poems depending on their line structure are grouped into collections,the Ettuthokai and the Pathup-p-pattu.Some of the 15 groups
include the PRRAnanooRu,AinkuRunooRu,Kurru nThoKai etc.,The subject of the poems(Porul) deal with EITHER aKHam(Love) or
PuRam(heroism).Unlike the latter ,no names of people(eg.kings) are mentioned in the former.
The akam poems are set in the Thinai or landscapes which was according to some presumably how dravidian society was organised before the caste
system solidified i.e., on the basis of the area of residence.Accordingly there were 5 thinais each with their one social structure and mode of life.

1.Kurrinji-mountains,inhabited by the kuravars worshipping Murugan.

2.mullai-forest/pasture - ETayar - Mayon/Thirumal (vishnu)

3.maRutham-fields - Uzhuvar - Indra

4.Neital-seacoast - fishermen/traders - varunan

5.Palai-wasteland - highwaymen(AARali-k-KaLvar) - KoRRavai(Kali)

(for a complete list seeZvelebil,K)

each tinai has a particular connection with each stage of love e.g.. (1) with secret meetings and poems of that stage were based on that tinai
through similes etc.,

Though disputed, works like the Paripatal and KaLLiThokai seem to be of a later period(5-7 AD?) than say, the Purrananooru.This is because of
references to stories /events of the Puranas & epics ,greater reference to God esp. Vishnu ,Shiva and Murugan which was not true earlier though
passing references were rarely made and the use of Sanskrit words like Maithunam and kamalam.Bhakthi to God was a popular theme for these poems
rather than love and heroism.



Satavahanas (28 BC - 250 AD)

The Satavahanas (28 BC - 250 AD), also known as the Andhras, emerged as an independent power in the Deccan in the first century BC. It was founded by Simuka (65 BC - 25 BC). His son, Satakarni (25 BC - 20 AD), succeeded him. Under the Satavahanas, many Buddhist worshipping halls (Chaityas) and monasteries (Viharas) were cut out from rocks. Some famous examples are Amravati and Nagarjuna Konda. Buddhist cave temples were also cut at the now-famous sites of Ajanta and Ellora.

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Elora Caves

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Ajanta paintings

With the Satavahanas providing lines of communication between the north and the south, the isolation of the southern kingdoms ended. Significantly, trade and exchange of ideas increased.


For more info on Elora and Anjanta see: http://www.geetham.net/forums/viewtopic.php?t=5505 - courtesy Katteri

ashokcsn_2000
08-13-2004, 09:13 PM
GUPTA EMPIRE (320 - 550 AD)

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In 319 AD, the king Chandragupta II (the second) managed to unite all of northern India into a great empire again. (He was not related to the first Chandragupta, but he wanted people to think he was). Even some of the south was brought under Guptan power. The Gupta kings were not Buddhists but Hindus, following the older Indian religion.

Gupta Empire was the empire of the Gupta clan of kings in Ancient India The origins of the Guptas are shrouded in obscurity. The Chinese traveller I-tsing provides the first evidence of the Gupta kingdom in Magadha. He came to India in A.D. 672 and heard of `Maharaja Sri-Gupta' who built a temple for Chinese pilgrims near Mrigasikhavana. I-tsing gives the date for this event merely as `500 years before'. This does not match with other sources and hence we can assume that I-tsing's computation was a mere guess.
The most likely date for the reign of Sri-Gupta is c. 240-280 A.D. His successor Ghatotkacha ruled probably from c. 280-319 A.D. In contrast to his successor, he is also referred to in inscriptions as `Maharaja'.

At the beginning of the 4th century the Guptas ruled a few small kingdoms in Magadha and around modern-day Uttar Pradesh. Ghatotkacha (c. 280-319 A.D.), had a son named Chandragupta. In a breakthrough deal, Chandragupta was married to Kumaradevi, a Lichchhavi - the main power in Magadha. With a dowry of the kingdom of Magadha (capital Pataliputra) and an alliance with the Lichchhavis, Chandragupta set about expanding his power, conquering much of Magadha, Prayaga and Saketa. He established a realm stretching from the Ganges to Allahabad by 320 AD. Chandragupta was the first of the Guptas to be referred to as `Maharajadhiraja' or `King of Kings'.

Chandragupta died in 335 AD and was succeeded by his son Samudragupta, a tireless conqueror. He took the kingdoms of Shichchhatra and Padmavati early in his reign. He then took the Kingdom of Kota and attacked the tribes in Malvas, the Yaudheyas, the Arjunayanas, the Maduras and the Abhiras. By his death in 380 AD, he had incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his realm, his rule extended from the Himalayas to the river Narmada and from the Brahmaputra to the Yamuna. He gave himself the titles King of Kings and World Monarch. He was succeeded by his son Ramagupta, who was captured by the Saka Satraps (Kshatrapas) and was soon succeeded by his brother Chandragupta II.

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Vikramaditya

Chandragupta II, the Son of Power (Vikramaditya), ruled until 413 AD. He married the daughter of the king of Deccan, Rudrasena II, and gained a valuable ally. Only marginally less war-like than his father, he expanded his realm westwards, defeating the Saka Satraps of Malwa, Gujarat and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting until 409 AD, but with his main opponent Rudrasimha III defeated by 395 AD, and crushing the Bengal (Vanga) chiefdoms. This extended his control from coast-to-coast, established a second (trading) capital at Ujjain and was the high point of the empire. Despite the creation of the empire through war, the reign is remembered for the great growth in Hindu art, literature, culture and science, especially during the reign of Chandragupta II. Much of advances was recorded by the Chinese scholar and traveller Fa-hsien. Chandragupta II was succeeded by his son Kumaragupta I.


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Gold coin of Chandragupta II

To read the famous stories on Vikramaditya goto - http://www.ruchiskitchen.com/ruchiskitchen/kids/stories/vikramword.htm

But in 455 AD the Huns invaded India from the north and destroyed the Guptan Empire. After that, India was split into small kingdoms again until the Muslim invasions around 1000 AD.

katteri
08-14-2004, 07:17 AM
ashokcsn_2000

Thanx nu oru varthai solli mudika manam illaa...
Excellent information ...i have nt read it completely i ll read it slowly.
I will appreciate to give more information till moghuls. From moghuls till british invasion i cud give the informn...

Shy
08-14-2004, 03:19 PM
so far print out yaeduthutaen !!!

Will read it completely once u finish and will let u know

:sm03: :sm03: :sm03: :sm03: :sm03:

Great info ashok.. thanks much :b:

Shy

ashokcsn_2000
08-14-2004, 03:40 PM
I will appreciate to give more information till moghuls. From moghuls till british invasion i cud give the informn...

Sure Katteri, you can provide us with more info on the moguls tills the independcence you are really welcome. :b: :b: :b: . I will ask you to continue the post after I come to the moguls and It will be wonderful if u can continue it.

This discussion has also brought me to an interesting position wherein i am also researching on south indian history during the timeline belonging to sangam I (first one; there are three eras of sangam) wherein a lot was lost during the Kaveri Floods. I will follow up on that, let us see where it gets us to.
If anyoe has any information on that please bring it in too would be really helpful.

Ashok :D :D :D

ashokcsn_2000
08-14-2004, 05:38 PM
History of Indian Food

The earliest Indians, the Harappans, probably ate mainly wheat and rice and lentils, and occasionally cows, pigs, sheep, and goats, and chicken. Rice and chicken seem to have come from Thailand, and wheat and sheep from West Asia. Some of the wheat was made into stews or soups, and some into flat breads called chapatis. The arrival of the Aryans does not seem to have changed Indian eating habits.

But by around 300 BC, under the Mauryans, a lot of Hindus felt that animal sacrifices added to your karma and kept you from getting free of the wheel of reincarnation. Animal sacrifices became less popular, and although people didn’t give up eating meat entirely, they ate much less of it. And a lot of people became vegetarians.

In the Gupta period, around 650 AD, Hindus began to worship a Mother Goddess. Cows were sacred to her, and so Hindus stopped eating beef.

And then around 1100 AD, with the Islamic conquests in northern India, most people in India stopped eating pork as well, because it is forbidden by the Koran.

People could still eat sheep or goats or chicken, but most of the people in India became vegetarians, and only ate meat very rarely or not at all.

The vegetarian food that Indians ate was mainly wheat flatbreads or a kind of flatbread made out of chickpeas, with a spicy vegetarian sauce, and yogurt. Or people ate rice, with yogurt and vegetables. A lot of spicy peppers grew in India.

ashokcsn_2000
08-14-2004, 06:04 PM
Refining of Metals - We Did it !

IRON:

There exists an ancient Greek chemical treatise entitled "On the Tempering of Indian Steel". Edrisi has noted that "The Hindus excel in the manufacture of iron. They have also workshops wherein are forged the most famous sabres in the world. It is impossible to find anything to surpass the edge that you get from Indian Steel". This passage which has been quoted in the notes to the Periplus on page 71 proves beyond doubt, in the words of a foreign historian, that the art of smelting and casting iron was well developed in ancient India.
In ancient times, in India, Loha-churna meant iron ore; Kupya- shala and Sandhaani meant an iron foundry'. A furnace was called Chuli or Agnikund. Wrought iron was called Lohabandhan, iron bars were called Loha-pindaha. Smelting of iron was called Loha-drava-Karan (literally, liquefaction of Iron). Loha-chinha meant an iron mould and Lohakaraka meant a smith or ironmonger.

TIN:

In ancient tunes tin was known as Kassiteros in the Greek language. This word was derived from the early Sanskrit word Kasthira for tin. Even today in some Indian languages tin and aluminium are called Kathila which is derived from the Sanskrit word Kasthira. In ancient India the value of tin for hardening copper was recognised and the art of tempering tin with other metals was developed. The fact is corroborated by the comments of the Greek historians (quoted below in the section on Copper) regarding the excellent tempering of various metals that had been practised in India.

COPPER:

Copper has been mentioned in the Periplus as an article of export from India. In those days copper ore was extracted in a big way and it was smelted locally in South India and Rajputana, according to the Periplus.
Philostratus of Lemnos, in about 230 A.D. has mentioned a shrine in Taxila in India, in which were hung pictures on copper tablets representing the feats of Alexander and Porus. In the words of Philostratus "The various figures were portrayed in a mosaic of orichalcum, silver, gold, and oxidised copper, but the weapons in iron. The metals were so ingeniously worked into one another that the pictures which they formed were comparable to the productions of the most famous Greek artists''.
In ancient India copper was also known as Tamara, copper plate was called Tamara-Patra. Tamrakar meant a copper smith and Tamara-pana meant a copper coin.

BRASS:

Brass is not an original metal obtained from natural ore, it is a composite metal found as an alloy of copper and zinc. From the above quotation of Philostratus it is evident that in ancient India the art of welding metals together was known. We cannot conclusively say that Brass (called Pitalam in Sanskrit) was manufactured in ancient India but the fact that their were Sanskrit equivalents for copper (Tamara, Kasthira), zinc (Dasta) an alloy which was called Mishradhatu (mixed metal) Nyunata (novelty) and Dushitaha (impurity) supports the fact that Brass, or a Brass-like metal, was smelted in ancient India.
Thus it was recognised that an alloy would be a mixture of metals, that it would be novelty; and that due to the mixing of metals, the resultant alloy would be impure in the sense that it would not be a metal derived from a natural mineral ore.
It is possible that brass was used for decorative purposes due to its likeness to gold. Thus we have the terms like Pitalam-Pushpakam, Pitalam Kusuman janam and Pitalam-Pushpaketu which mean efflorescence created from brass. The ornamental use of brass in ancient India is also evident from the quotation of Philosotratus given above in the section on copper.

Corrundum
This unfamiliar word connotes crystallised aluminium oxide of various colours having great hardness and used as gems and also as an abrasive. We have been told that certain gems were used to cut metals in ancient India, corundum, or Kuruvinda in Sanskrit, was one such gem. Corundum was also exported from India to foreign countries since ancient times. The fact that India was the main source of this item is evident from the name Corundum given to it which according to the Oxford Dictionary is derived from the Sanskrit word Kuruvinda.

ashokcsn_2000
08-14-2004, 06:26 PM
The Muslims Invade India ( 1100 - 1200 AD)

This is a very significant period in the Indian History since this starts a new era of rule that lasted for some of the longest rules in India. It happened to be a uniting factor after the era of the Guptas.

The Muslim conquest of India from 1175 to 1340 AD. The causes for their conquest though various, the major reason was the spread of Islam. The Muslim dominated Kabul, the Punjab, and Sind, before intruding in to India. The first attempt to enter the Indian territory was determined by the circumstances leading to the invasion of Sindh. The wealth in India lured the Muslim rulers. Further the inter-rivalry between the kingdoms in India paved the way for their entry in to India. The immediate cause of Muslim intervention is said to be plundering of some ships which carried costly gifts from the king of Ceylon for the Khalifa, near the port of Debal by sea pirates. The Hindu ruler of the Sindh, Raja Dahir was asked to compensate for this by the Governor of Iraq. The refusal to comply with this demand for the reason that the port was not under his control infuriated the Governor who sent two expeditions to defeat the Raja . But both the attempts to defeat the Raja failed. This further infuriated the governor who sent his son-in law Muhammad-bin-Qasim in 711AD with a large army to conquer Sindh. In 712 AD Raja Dahir was defeated and put to death. Sindh, Multan and Kannauj were conquered.

Mahmud of Ghazni

The elder son of Sabuktagin, Mahmud of Ghazni assumed the throne in 997 AD. He was very conscious of the wealth he could achieve from further conquests into India. He was also a religious fanatic who aimed to spread Islam. At the eve of Mahmud's invasion there existed no strong power to confront his military might.
The invasion of Mahmud opened the way for the future Muslim adventures in India. The repeated success of Mahmud was an eye opener for the Muslim thirst for consolidating themselves politically, economically and to promote their religious outlook. The status of Ghazni grew to a big empire.

Muhammad Ghori

The next important Muslim ruler who had made hisi nfluence in Indian history known was Muhammad Ghori. Muhammad Ghori is said to have invaded India seven times. Mohammad Ghori invaded Multan in about 1175-76AD. In 1178 he attempted the conquest of Gujarat. He was strongly resisted by Bhimdev II who inflicted a crushing defeat on him in 1178 AD.In 1179 he conquered Peshwar and annexed Lahore. In 1186 AD Mohammad Ghori deposed Khusru Malik, the last prince in the generation of Sabuktgin and Mahmud and after occuping Punjab kept himself in a strong position in the Indus region. In 1191AD Mohammad Ghori met Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain. Here unlike the separate independent forces which Mohammad met in his previous campaigns. He had to face combined armies of Prithviraj, the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer and Delhi. Mohammad Ghori was severely wounded and outnumbered. He was defeated and left the battle-field.
In the very next year in 1192 AD both the armies met again at Tarain. This time Mohammad cleverly out did Prithvi Raj Chauhan. The gateway to Delhi was opened.
Mohammad Ghori died in 1206AD.

After this the Moguls come into power in India, that goes on till 1707. -

Request to Katteri to continue.

katteri
08-14-2004, 07:17 PM
sure ill continue but not now sometime later...

krishng
08-14-2004, 09:27 PM
ashok..so much information. :sm03: i couldnt read it at once. i ll read it slowly.

amazing man..thanx a lot for sharing.

-Krishng.