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katteri
01-16-2004, 03:02 PM
Kautilya and Arthashastra Ithu copy and paste article irunthalum.......A good one i think Srigan wud love it


Kautilya, author of the Arthashastra (Science of Material Gain) lived in the 4th Century BC. North India's political landscape was transformed by the emergence of Magadha in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain. In 322 B.C., Magadha, under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya, began to assert its hegemony over neighboring areas. Chandragupta, who ruled from 324 to 301 B.C., was the architect of the first Indian imperial power--the Mauryan Empire (326-184 B.C.)--Whose capital was Pataliputra, near modern-day Patna, in Bihar. Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, ruled from 269 to 232 B.C. and was one of India's most illustrious rulers. Situated on rich alluvial soil and near mineral deposits, especially iron, Magadha was at the center of bustling commerce and trade. The capital was a city of magnificent palaces, temples, a university, a library, gardens, and parks, as reported by Megasthenes, the third-century B.C. Greek historian and ambassador to the Mauryan court. The manuscript of Arthasastra was discovered at Tanjore and Mr. Shamasastry gave its first translation in 1905 and subsequently published it as a text in 1909, as Vol.37 of the Bibliotheca Sanskrita of Mysore.

Legend states that Chandragupta's success was due, in large measure, to his Brahman minister and adviser, Kautilya (Chanakya). Arthasastra was a textbook that outlined governmental administration and political strategy. There was a highly centralized and hierarchical government with a large staff, which regulated tax collection, trade and commerce, industrial arts, mining, vital statistics, welfare of foreigners, maintenance of public places including markets and temples, and prostitutes. A large standing army and a well-developed espionage system were maintained. The empire was divided into provinces, districts, and villages governed by a host of centrally appointed local officials, who replicated the functions of the central administration.

katteri
01-16-2004, 03:03 PM
Thiruvalluvar and Thirukural
Thiruvalluvar the author of Thirukural was born in the first century B.C., about 30 years before Jesus Christ in Mylapore, the village of peacocks (Myl in Tamil means peacock), in the present day Chennai (capital city of Tamil Nadu State), at a time when the Tamil Land was rich in culture, vivid in its life and adventurous in its commerce. Valluvars were the priests of outcaste people at that time. Tamilians take cognizance of the birth of Thiruvalluvar as a basis of Tamil calendar according to which we are now in the year 2032 of Thiruvalluvar Aandu (Year). Thirukkural is regarded as a renowned work, eulogized as a directory of code of conduct and ethics to humanity. The revered poet not only deals with the general administration, but also codified clear-cut directions to the mankind on how they should behave and act in a social, political, religious and family circles.
The numerous poems Thiruvalluvar composed were Thrukkural: “Thiru” plus “Kural”. The word “Thiru” denotes Kural’s sanctity (sacredness), and “Kural” means the short verses (couplets). Thirukkural, meaning sacred couplets, is considered equivalent to the Vedas of the Hindu Scriptures and “the Bible of the Tamil Land”. It is evident from the Kurals that Valluvar had plenty of opportunities to talk to people from abroad and to know their different cultures and religions. He has taken the best from all cultures and religions and put them together in Kural form. All the 1330 couplets portray the simple human pictures of life. The sacred verses deal very much with political and social affairs of life.

He used to keep by his side, when he sat for meals, a needle and a small cup filled with water. Once, his host asked him as to why he insisted on having these two placed by the side of the plate. He said, "Food should not be wasted, even a grain is precious. Sometimes, stray grains of cooked rice or stray pieces of cooked vegetables fall off the plate or away from it. While I eat, I lift them off the floor, with the help of this needle and stir them in the water to clean them and eat them."

Thiruvalluvar earned a living by weaving cloth and selling it. In the same place where Thiruvalluvar lived, there was a rich man whose son was a naughty boy. This lad came to the weaver and asked what was the price of the sari he was selling. The man replied, "Three rupees (the price of those days)". The lad tore the sari into half and asked what was the price of the half of the sari. The weaver relied, "A rupee and a half." The lad tore it again into two and asked what was the price of the torn piece the man replied, "It is worth twelve annas" (The three fourths of a rupee). The weaver did not get angry at the lad’s behavior. He was calm and unruffled. The young lad was astonished. He asked the weaver, "How did you acquire the quality of forbearance (Kshama)?" The man replied, "Forbearance is truth. It is right conduct. It is non-violence. It is a source of great joy. It is heaven itself. It is the summum bonum of this world. There is nothing greater than forbearance in this world." The weaver was Thiruvalluvar and the numerous poems he composed were Thrukkural

Arthasastra[1] has on the whole 15 books, 150 chapters, 180 sections and 6,000 slokas. It is made as a compendium of almost all the Arthasástras, which, in view of acquisition and maintenance of the earth, have been composed by ancient teachers. “ This Sastra, bereft of undue enlargement and easy to grasp and understand has been composed by Kautilya in words the meaning of which has been definitely settled”.

Thirukkural[2] consists 133 Chapters and each Chapter containing 10 couplets. They are grouped in 3 major parts with subgroups: 1. PART I. VIRTUE (Chapters: 1 – 38); 2. PART II. WEALTH (Chs.39 – 108); and 3. PART III. LOVE (Chs. 109 – 133). The second part is the longest and has 70 chapters on wealth covering the entire area of the state, its polity, economy, social issues and problems etc.

Kautilya and Thiruvalluvar begin their works with salutations to God. While the former starts with: “Óm, Salutation to Sukra and Brihaspati,”[3] the latter has dedicated the first chapter (ten couplets) “In praise of God.” The first couplet of the chapter narrates: As the letter “A” is the first of all letters (Alphabets) and the source of energy to all letters, so the eternal God is the first in the world”. Kautilya does not specifically talk about God in his work as Thiruvalluvar does. While describing the city plan within the fort, Kautilya mentions about the apartments to be erected for gods and goddesses in the centre of the city. According to Kautilya, the king fulfills the functions of god (Indira and Yama) upon earth; all who slight him will be punished not only by the secular arm but also by heaven. Mauryan kings including Asoka took the title of “Beloved of the Gods” (Devanampiya).[4] They were no doubt looked on as superior semi-divine beings. The Mauryans left behind them the tradition of the Universal King. The king was usually held in great awe and respect. We are able to understand between the lines of his pragmatic approach that Kautilya was a God-fearing man. Valluvar, on the other hand, have had a profound experience and knowledge of God and a deep devotion to Him. He performs the extraordinary feat of devoting ten couplets exclusively to submitting oneself to God, but keeping his references to the Almighty so general that He is kept universal and would not be identified exclusively with any religion.[5] One understands from his kurals that God is the Alpha (the origin) and the Omega (the end) of all existence in the universe. The God of Thirukkural is universal and non-denominational.

katteri
01-16-2004, 03:05 PM
Economic Ideas and Their Relevance
Kautilya and Thiruvalluvar may be called contemporaries. The former was adviser (a diplomatic/administrative career) to king Chandragupta Maurya in Pataliputra, today’s Patna, and the latter was an ordinary weaver (a proletariat) in today’s Chennai. Both lived thousands of miles away from each other and were from different, castes, socio-political backgrounds, professions and cultures. But still, it is amazing to discover that Arthashastra (Science of Material Gains) and Thirukkural (Sacred Couplets) have a lot in common, often in identical words and phrases. It looks as if they wrote them together.

Besides various other common ideas and thoughts in their books, their economic and political thoughts are centered around the following areas: Life, role, excellence and qualities of a king; upright kingdoms; faithful citizens; the functions of governments; the duties of ministers, ambassadors, secretaries etc; planning and good process of decision-making; employment and the beauty of work; wealth and its role; a good army and the role of soldiers; agriculture and its importance; the various problems of the state like poverty, famine, crimes etc. We shall discuss and appreciate these ideas under fifteen topics, for they are unique and have great relevance for today.

1) Life, Excellence, Qualities and Duties of a King: These ideas are found in Book I which is on “Discipline” and Book VI which is on “the Source of Sovereign States” of Arthasastra. “The king who is well educated and disciplined in sciences, devoted to good government of his subjects, and bent on doing good to all people will enjoy the earth unopposed” (AI: VI).[6] ‘A saintly king shakes off the aggregate of the six enemies like: lust, anger, greed, vanity, haughtiness and over joy; acquires wisdom, restrains from the organs of senses; he is disciplined, maintains his subjects; employs good ministers for assistance; and keeps away from unrighteous transactions’ (AI: VII).

“If a king is energetic, his subjects will be equally energetic”. ‘He should keep a time table/ programme each day. If he is accessible to people, he may be sure to avoid confusion and public disaffection. He keeps company with priests and teachers. “In the happiness of his subjects lies his happiness, in their welfare his welfare… the king shall ever be active and discharge his duties; the root of wealth is activity, and of evil its reverse” By his good activities, he can achieve his desired ends and abundance of wealth’ (AI: XIX).

‘Born of a high family, godly, possessed of valor, seeing through the medium of aged persons, virtuous, truthful, not of a contradictory nature, grateful, having large aims, highly enthusiastic, not addicted to procrastination, powerful to control his neighboring kings, of resolute mind, having an assembly of ministers of no mean quality, and possessed of a taste for discipline; these are the qualities of an inviting nature. Inquiry, hearing, perception, retention in memory, reflection, deliberation, inference and steadfast adherence to conclusions are the qualities of the intellect. Valor, determination of purpose, quickness, and probity are the aspects of a king’s enthusiasm. He is possessed of a sharp intellect, strong memory, and keen mind, energetic, powerful, trained in all kinds of arts, free from vice’ (AVI: I). Kautilya holds that a blind king is better than an erring king, because “a blind king can be made by his supporters to adhere to whatever line of policy he ought to. But an erring king who is bent upon doing what is against the science, brings about destruction to himself and to his kingdom by misadministration” (AVIII: II).

Thiruvalluvar describes a king’s life, qualities and duties in eight chapters (eighty couplets). It was Tamil tradition to consider the king as the life and soul of society. ‘A king is one who possesses the six things: an army, a people, wealth, ministers, friends and a fortress; who never fails in these four things: fearlessness, liberty, wisdom and energy; who is a man of modesty, virtues and refrains from all vices; who is free from pride, anger and lust; who does not praise himself; who should have self control; who acquires wealth, guards it and distributes to people; who is accessible and kind to all; who cares for his people, protects all who come to him; whose friends are men of virtues and knowledge; who makes them his own; who considers his ministers as his own eyes; who examines their character and qualification before appointing; who shows respect even to his enemies. Unkind kings are a burden to the earth’ (T39 – 46).[7]

According to Thiruvalluvar, there are three sources of income to the king: unclaimed wealth, taxes which subjects pay, and customs collection from foreigners. In Valluvar’s world, there were three channels of equitable distribution of wealth: Defence, Public works and Social service. These three cover the legitimate public expenditure for distribution. All the qualities and duties primarily attributed to the king in the Arthasastra and the Kurals will be equally applicable to all people.

This section is a lesson on good governance. In modern times, democracies have replaced Kingdoms and political parties and ministers have replaced kings. The qualities Thiruvalluvar attributes to kings are naturally expected to be found in our leaders: Ministers, MPs, MLAs, diplomats, planners, policy makers, public office-holders and so on. A few years ago, John Major, ex-British Prime Minister appointed a committee under the leadership of British lawyer, Lord Nolan to draw up a Charter of Governance in public life. This committee drew up seven principles under the Charter: 1) Selflessness in service; 2) Integrity in life; 3) Objectivity; 4) Accountability; 5) Honesty; and 6) Leadership. These are very similar to qualities of kings and ministers, which we have just seen in the Arthasastra and Kural. In the spirit of Kural and Arthasastra, today’s administrators must become popular not by their money power, but by their easy access to the public and the alert performance of their duties.

Corruption in governance is the root cause of many evils today. It brings down the quality of governance and consequently the overall development of the country. A survey of seven government departments conducted in 2002 in five metros in India rated Delhi’s Customs and Excise Department the most corrupt, scoring 8.6 on a scale of 10.[8] Leaders need to be service-minded and people oriented, going beyond caste, religion, region and party, and see only the good of the country and society.

2). Planning: While talking about planning, Kautilya says “ the king shall plan his administrative measures after deliberations in a well-formed council. The subject matter of the council shall be entirely secret” (AI: XV). Book II of Arthasastra deals with the duties of government superintendent in detail in 36 chapters. Kautilya touches upon every possible area of administration starting from “Formation of Villages” and “Division of Land”, and describes the duties of the superintendent of respective departments. Take for example chapters III and IV. Kautilya describes in detail the plan of how a fort should be built and a blueprint of a city within the fort.
According to Thiruvalluvar, a king must act with forethought; he must reflect and consult before acting; he must choose suitable methods. He should weigh pros and cons of any act; reflect on the strengths and all resources available before acting; he should know what will be loss and what will be the gain of any action; should not act only for profit; weigh his ability before setting out for a war; As a crow overcomes an owl in daytime, so must a king weigh his time, season, opportunity and place, then he can conquer the world; he must “think first before beginning work”; he should find suitable methods for works; “The world will not approve of things which are done without reflection”; he should have a clear knowledge of his resources; “ he will have an end to his life if he climbs further than the end of a branch”; “even if his income is small, there will be no loss, if his expenditures are small”; the wise never hastily reveal their anger (T 47 – 50).

These sections from both vintage thinkers are lessons to our planners and policy makers on economic governance and budget making. According to them the energy and effort spent in action without adequate planning and consultation will not produce the desired results. This is what we call today “cost-benefit analysis”. We find in Arthasastra and Thirukkural excellent principles of public finance and financial administration. Our failure in economic development in India reflects our inefficient planning, administration and implementation at different levels. In this connection, I am reminded of what A.H. Hanson[9] observed 40 years ago about Indian planning:

The men are able, the organization is adequate, and the procedures are intelligently devised. Why, then, have the Plans, since 1956, so persistently run into crisis?”

Hanson’s answer to his question is also revealing:

For various reasons, Indian planners have never treated the ‘objective function’ with sufficient respect. Their tendency is to give themselves the fullest benefit of every possible doubt… Too many of their aims are contingent upon the adoption, by various sections of the Indian community, of attitudes they are exceedingly unlikely to adopt….

Planning needs to be people oriented, and for real growth and development. Then only the forecasts of economists like Kirit Parikh that India could have a per capita income of US$ 30,000 by the year 2047, and of an American professor, A. J. Rosensweig that India’s GDP would exceed that of Japan by the year 2025 and that India would be the third largest economy in the world (behind USA and China), could be transformed into reality.

3). On Employment of Ministers and others: Kautilya says, “ Sovereignty (rajatva) is possible only with assistance. “A single wheel can never move.” Therefore, a king shall employ ministers and councilors and listen to their advice”. At the head of affairs was a small body of elder statesmen, whom the king was advised to choose with the utmost care. The size of this privy council (mantri-parishad) varied. (AI: VII). ‘ Men whose ability is inferred from their capacity shown in work, should be, having taken into consideration the place and time where and when they have to work, appointed as ministerial officers (AI: VIII). ‘The king shall examine the character of ministers. He shall ascertain their loyalty and disloyalty by temptations through priest spies (AI: X). Thus, in Kautilya’s time, every aspect of the life of the individual was watched over, and as far as possible controlled by the government.

‘Those who are possessed of foresight, wise, of strong memory, bold, eloquent, skilful, intelligent, possessed of enthusiasm, dignity and endurance, pure in character, affable, firm in loyal devotion, free from procrastination and fickle mindedness, and free from such qualities as excite hatred and enmity, should be appointed as ministers, councilors and priests’ (AI: IX). The qualifications of ministers have also been described in AVIII: I, and AV: VI.
Valluvar describes in a very similar way like Kautilya: “ Let a minister be chosen after he has been tried by means of i) his virtue (aram), ii) his love for money (porul), iii) his love for sex (inbam) and iv) his fear of losing his life (uyir).” A king should not chose ignorant men through partiality; if he does, it will be the highest folly. Those who are employed should have: pleasing nature to do good; ability to enlarge the resources, increase wealth and prevent calamities. They should possess love, knowledge, clear mind and freedom from covetousness. They must be men of wisdom and endurance; their conduct must be examined daily by the king, because their conduct influences the world; “ if they act crookedly, the world will also act crookedly” (T51-52).

Chapter 64 of the Kural is a dissertation on ministers – their qualifications, characteristics and activities. This is an important section on Statecraft. “A Minister is one who makes excellent consideration of time, means, place, manner and the difficulties. He excels in firmness, knowledge, perseverance, and protection of subjects. He gives sound advice to kings and people. Minister should possess 1) power of speech (because wealth and evil result from his speech); 2) firm in action; and 3) proper consultation. “ Far better are the seventy crores of enemies for a king, than an unfaithful minister at his side”. Chapter 68 is on management techniques and decision-making process. “A Minister is conversant with the best methods of performance; he should avoid actions that yield no benefit or bring grief to the king. Even though he may see his mother starve, he should not act hastily”. After considerable thought, planning and analysis, one arrives at a decision. Once a decision is taken, any hesitation or delay is suicidal.

Shy
01-16-2004, 03:26 PM
Katteri... cut n paste a good info is not bad.. kandeepa will read whenever I get a chance... quick question?Patti Mandram sectionla irukku...whats the article debating about... between these 2?? any idea?

Shy

sri_gan
01-16-2004, 03:41 PM
Katteri like you said, I admire the work. :clap:, One more think Katteri, lets break into small units.... and discuss it big with current situations of politics. How it is handled, how better it can be handled.

Shy,

It is good to acquire the political knowledge, Basics of politics were incorporated in both of these scriptures, If you like to compare lets compare and have even more ideas.

Let take this as sindhanai mandram, what do you say.

katteri
01-16-2004, 03:50 PM
Sri innum mudiyalai there are lot to continue but i liked the way the words were put up for instance
If a king is energetic, his subjects will be equally energetic...
Evalavu azhagha solli irukanaghaaa..
Pathenkala.. In BC itself they knwo wht they have 2 do...With high tech IT at their hands politicians were not able to build a good nation.....
''King is responsible for whatever happends in the kingdom'''....JJ says wht can i do (recollect kodai case)....CM is not only for putting signatures.....
MK mattum summava.....

i need to find y arthasatra has nt bcom popular as thirukural..... its very hard to get the info but i ll try

sri_gan
01-16-2004, 04:05 PM
Katteri,

No only that. Thirukural kku MK vizhakkam koduthu irrukar correct, but how much he really bring it into practical realities what he learnt. Sometimes what he talks now is really senseless. He uses the raja thanthiram only to acquire the powers and not to protect the people.

One thing I liked about JJ now is this, ippavum corruption irrukum but not at the very low level oru common man kku direct effect irrukathu, oru example is the panparag, manikchand issue, she put a ban and she knows for sure people will smuggle it, ofcourse it will not affect a person in a open category, but it will affect in the root level. Ithu oru vagai raja thanthiram. Inniki panparag kidaikamaiya irruku.


Next thing about the Goverment aided bars, smart move there too, eppadi na, I know from the past this big gangs will fight to get the bar license and they will bribe the auction people to get it and they forgot the goverment about taxes. Ippo ellam thala kila mariduchu.

Any sarakku which comes is paid with the taxes, Bribe pannina profit katta mudiyathu, profit kattati, license revoke aidum, ithai innum fine tune pannalam.

Shy
01-16-2004, 04:20 PM
sindhanai mandram.. good thought... I second sri_gan's suggestion.. small pieces'a iruntha.. can understand and discuss our views..

Shy

katteri
01-16-2004, 04:34 PM
JJ decides to stand alone in forth coming election....Mk parungha ..after a long cold war with congreess , he has joined hands with them.M akkal vazhi solluvanka nu nambureenkaaa. my predcition is dmk wud win 24 to 30 seats .....its a loss to BJP..I wud be happy if jj takes(win) all the 39 seats.......

One thing i liked abt BJP...is they adhered with democracy...(if congress was in centre they wud have dismissed jj ) Though the way they came into power (ram temple) is not good ..but they r very clear in stands.unless court gives a verdict there is no temple construction
Mk doesnt have any principles...appuram PMK entha kathciyoda alliance iruntha jeyukalm nu thittam ...(cunning as FOx)...
i like kautalyas words rather than valluvar ....avar solra style a partheenkaalaaaaa.. ....

katteri
01-16-2004, 04:38 PM
On Upright Government:

According to Kautilya, the elements of Government are the king, ministers, the country, the fort, the treasury, the army and the friends.’ ‘Excepting the enemy, these seven elements are said to be the limb-like elements of sovereignty.’ “



A wise king can make even the poor and miserable elements of his kingdom happy and prosperous; but a wicked king will surely destroy the most prosperous and loyal elements of his kingdom.” “


A wise king, trained in politics, will though he possesses a small territory, conquer the whole earth with the help of the best-fitted elements of his sovereignty, and never be defeated” (AVI: I). Chapter II of Book VI is on peace and exertion.


Kautilya claims “acquisition and security of property are dependent upon peace and industry. Efforts to achieve the results of works undertaken are industry (vyayama). Absence of disturbance to the enjoyment of the results achieved from work is peace. The application of the six-fold royal policy is the source of peace and industry. (AVI: II).

katteri
01-16-2004, 04:40 PM
Valluvar emphasized the Rule of Law, a good governance by law – ‘equality before the law’ and equal protection of the law’. If there is a delay in identifying and redressing the people’s grievances in time and failure in rendering justice to them according to the law, the reputation of the government will go down the drain and the government will have its natural end. Government is to examine the crimes which may be committed, to show no favor to any one, and to inflict such punishment as may be wisely resolved on;

“When there is rain, the world enjoys prosperity; when the king rules with justice, his subjects prosper”; It is king’s duty to guard his people from harm and punish criminals. Kingdom will fall to ruin, if the government does not examine its works and business daily. “The king defends the world, and justice defends the king”. “Prosperity gives more sorrow than poverty under unjust rule” (T55).


Valluvar continues, ‘the world will embrace the feet of the king who rules with love. The scepter of justice will bring rain and plentiful crops. Unjust government will fall to ruin.’ As is the world without rain, so is the country with unjust government. If the king and his rule ensures “just government”, his kingdom will surely be blessed with seasonal rains and rich harvest, which never fail.


‘If the guardian fails to guard or if there is misrule and failure of justice, everything in the country will fail – from the milk yield of the cow to the performance of priests’ (T56).

katteri
01-16-2004, 04:42 PM
For the govt section intha comment a parunkaaaaaa

The precepts of Kautilya and Thiruvalluvar on just government remind us of our rulers and governments, and the scams and scandals attributed to them. 1990s has been a decade of scams – the Bofors, the Bank Securities scam, the Hawala scam, the Animal Husbandry scam, the Sugar scam, Telecom scam, Fertilizer import scam, PSE disinvestment scam etc. Our governments, Centre and States, are full of scandals and corruption charges involving those who occupy top political positions. Corruption manifests itself in many forms: at the highest political level as horse-trading of MLAs and MPs; at the fiscal level in the form of evading taxes; at the corporate level in terms of financing elections by black money and so on.


A strong feeling has grown in Indian political life that corruption has become a way of life. In case, you are caught taking a bribe, you can get rid of the crime by paying a bribe”.


Bribe has become an incentive these days, which increases work efficiency in public offices. It is disturbing to note that corruption has brought India among the lowest in the list of countries of the world in the matter of prevalence of corrupt activities. Today government is being gradually transformed into a company/a business enterprise.


Can governance become a business? Our political system needs reforms, and the political process requires purification so that political will is strengthened to take necessary action against forces that generate black money, and sow the seeds of division, casteism, hatred and communal violence. There is a need for transparency at all levels

Shy
01-16-2004, 05:55 PM
katteri.. mudiyalai soli erukeenga.. but ellam post and then explain whats the outline of this post okvaa.. appo thaan we I read puriyum.. then we can discuss(are we going to ???)

Shy

sri_gan
01-16-2004, 06:08 PM
Katteri,

Like shy said, we will go step by step, illaina topic varavanga confuse airuvanga....

Lets take up





On Upright Government:


According to Kautilya, the elements of Government are the king, ministers, the country, the fort, the treasury, the army and the friends.’ ‘Excepting the enemy, these seven elements are said to be the limb-like elements of sovereignty.’ “




How it is there now in India?

How better it will be and what needs to be done to achieve this?

Ithai pathi pesalam.

katteri
01-17-2004, 01:44 PM
S Srigan we can start from here.
Elements of government....'' The govt which rules the centre or which is gng to rule will be of alliance and no matter what party rules the centre....They have to bend towards the alliance requirements...(they have 2 satisy the alliance if the govt has to sustain).
What can be done.
Lok sabha as it is contested nationally only national parties can participate in polls..other s cant ..'' DMk admk etc cant participate in loksabha elections'' This will reduce the chance of alliance govt and the govt will be a stable......

Comenaughty
01-17-2004, 07:26 PM
have a suggestion for an interesting patti mandram..... "is it right for MK and other pro-tamil leaders to tell pass the rule that only primary schools which teach in tamil can get government funding?"....

if this topic is good, tell me...i will start the thread.... thought it was a political topic.... aprom namma raja vandhu.... "adhanala dhaan amma atchi is the best'nu pesa arambichiruvaru"

naughty

Shy
01-17-2004, 07:45 PM
thats right naughty.. good topic thaan.. but shouldnt be like a political debates ... pakalaam others enna solraangannu :)..

Oru nalla subject irukku discuss pana.... abt poolli samiyaargal??? ;) enna solreenga !!!

just kidding ....

Shy



Shy

Comenaughty
01-17-2004, 07:59 PM
Oru nalla subject irukku discuss pana.... abt poolli samiyaargal??? enna solreenga !!!


nalla topic....
enga reputation'e indha madhiri saamiyaar'ala romba mosama poiduchu..... ellarum engala oru madhiri parkaranga nowadays.... onnu rendu per thappa irundha, ella saamiyaraium poli saamiyarnu pattam kudukkaranga.... enga fraternity'ke oru periya threat idhu :evil:

indha discussion ingeya niruthran...aprom katteri kochiparu.... edhukku veen nambu.... siva siva....

naughty

shiva1507
03-09-2004, 01:01 PM
Katteri... cut n paste a good info is not bad.. kandeepa will read whenever I get a chance... quick question?Patti Mandram sectionla irukku...whats the article debating about... between these 2?? any idea?

sankarid
12-12-2007, 07:51 PM
Please translate arthasaasthra in tamil.... Will be a helpfull