View Full Version : The cause of TITANIC sank ?

05-05-2004, 07:12 PM


The cause of TITANIC sank ?
that made the world shaken a moment!
all are welcome......,
plz share the story ....and the feeling......., {abt the movie}
u can post pix related to TITANIC MOVIE also!!

05-05-2004, 08:17 PM
Is it about the real cause for the sinking of Titanic or else just in the movie Titanic?? :think: :think: ... real cause has been well documented but as far as the movie goes, we should be probably asking the director... ;)

Well one of the reason was excess sulphur in the steel making the steel very brittle and vulnerable to impact loads.. so as soon as it hit the iceberg, it started breaking up.. because of the extent of damage which was not imagined and considered during its design, the ship sank too fast than expected combined with the flooding of the hull and eventually breaking the ship... :evil: :evil:


05-05-2004, 10:09 PM
Well one of the reason was excess sulphur in the steel making the steel very brittle and vulnerable to impact loads

really? I didn't know that. At that time did all ships have excess sulphur or was it fate that the Titanic had too much?

05-05-2004, 11:12 PM
cool seny :b:
well we start with the movie....TITANIC
ok va......,i want to make this topic interesting.....,
alot of feelings ...abt this movie...,
i think i have seen this more then 10 times in theatre ...
where i don't do that in tamil movies...,
most one and ma last was PITHAMAGAN.....,

05-05-2004, 11:16 PM
lollu ferny...
that was cute :ahha:
thanks !!

05-07-2004, 11:43 AM
Many may have heard about the Titanic. On its maiden voyage from England to the United States, the unsinkable ship hit an iceberg and sunk in the early1900's. Many stories have been written about the lives of the rich and famous whoperished on that voyage.

But how could ice cause so much damage?When temperature decreases, the bonding of the water molecule becomes strongand prevents the molecule from contracting or shrinking. At 4°C the molecules begin toarrange themselves along the directional lines of the bond, leaving gaps or openingsbetween these bonds. The water expands until at 0°C, it solidifies in a structure which isa very open crystalline structure. The same general pattern occurs during the formationof snowflakes, which are branching ice crystals grown out of moist air. Snowflakes havea hexagonal, or six-sided, structure, the outline which is formed by the bases of sixtetrahedrons.Water is a weird and awesome substance

source: www.msnucleus.org/membership/html/k-6/wc/pdf/wc4wa.pdf

05-07-2004, 11:51 AM
Another superb explaination: Mech engrs & metallurgy engrs can understand easily:

What made Titanic sink?

The public has always been fascinated with the story of the oceanliner "Titanic" ever since she struck on iceberg during her maiden voyage on April 12, 1912, and sank with the resultant loss of more than 1,500 lives. A surviving first class passenger of the ill-fated liner, Pierre Marechal, recalled: "When our boat had rowed about half a mile from the vessel, the Titanic — which was illuminated from stem to stern —was perfectly stationary, like some fantastic piece of stage scenery. Presently, the gigantic ship began to sink by the bows.... suddenly the lights went out, and an immense clamour filled the air. Little by little, the Titanic settled down and sank without noise. In the final spasm the stern of the leviathan stood in the air and then the vessel finally disappeared". For more than 85 years, the tragedy has been the subject off books, films and speculation as to why it took less than three hours for the ship to sink. Interest was renewed after Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute found Titanic under 12,000 ft of water in 1985 and then again when the film Titanic opened in December, 1997.

When the remains of the ship were discovered, it was found that parting of the plate seams made up the damage to the ship and that the up to 300 ft long gash thought to be created by the iceberg was only a myth. The ship was found broken into two pieces oriented in opposite directions. Some passengers had reported that the ship broke at the surface, as recollected by Elmer Z. Taylor who watched from Lifeboat No 5, close enough to the Titanic to observe its final demise. "The cracking sound, quite audible a quarter of a mile away, was due, in my opinion, to the tearing of the ship’s plates apart, or that part of the hull below the expansion joints, thus breaking the back at the point almost midway the length of the ship". But this was contrary to the reports of the disaster given by surviving officers, who testified that the ship sank intact.

To help solve this mystery, in 1996 several samples of steel from Titanic — a hull plate from the bow area and a plate from a major transverse bulkhead — recovered from the wreck site, were subjected to metallurgical and mechanical analyses to outline several factors that could have played a role in the ship’s demise.

Gibbs and Cox Inc, one of the oldest naval architecture and marine engineering firms in the world, conducted a basic study of the breakup of Titanic using linear finite element software (FEA) MSC/NASTRAN. This study was done in conjunction with materials testing of the Titanic steel by the University of Missouri — Rolla, with the advice from Prof H.P. Leighley Jr, Dr Timothy Foecke, and Mr Harold Reemsynder of Bethelehem Steel Corp’s Homer Research Laboratory in Bethelehem, Pa. In their study, engineers analysed the stresses in the Titanic as the flooding progressed within the bow regions, using modern finite element analyses (FEA) techniques that simply were not known to the structural designers of the ship in the first decades of the century. Under FEA study, a full-ship model was graphically constructed, employing modern graphic programming tools and then the corresponding weight and buoyancy curves were used to model the critical flooding conditions believed to represent the hull loading just prior to hull fracture. Since the flooding process took place over several hours, a quasi-static analysis (Analysis of a process that changes at infinitesimally small rate) was considered appropriate. The initial modelling effort focused on the determination of the location and magnitude of the high stress regions that developed in the hull while she remained on the surface. Engineers determined that stress levels in the mid-section of the ship were least up to yield strength of the steel just prior to sinking. When considered alone, stresses at these levels do not indisputably imply catastrophic failure. Additional analyses, focusing on probable locations of initial hull fracture, are required to indicate that the ship sustained possible catastrophic failure at the surface and began to break apart.

Significant stresses were developed in the vicinity of the two expansion joints, and in the inner bottom of the ship between the forward end of the boiler room and the aft end of the reciprocating engine room. Structural discontinuities, such as expansion joints, result in stress concentration development. While these structural discontinuities have not yet been thoroughly investigated, it is believed that stresses developed at these locations were significantly higher than the material yield stress i.e. the Titanic’s hull girder stresses exceeded the yield point of the steel.

Furthermore, metallurgical testing of samples of steel from the Titanic revealed a low residual nitrogen and manganese content and higher levels of sulphur, phosphorus, and oxygen than would be permitted today in mild steel plates. This indicates that steel was produced by open hearth rather than the Bessemer process, most likely in an acid-lined furnace; the steel is of type known as semi-killed, that is, partially deoxidised before casting into ingots. Excess oxygen can form precipitates that can embritte the steel, and will also raise transition temperatures. In the absence of sufficient manganese, sulphur reacts with the iron sulfide at the grain boundaries; it can also react with manganese, in either case creating paths of weakness for fractures. Sulphide particles under stress can nucleate micro cracks, which further loading will cause to coalesce into larger cracks; in fact, this was found to have been the mode of failure in the shell plating of the Titanic. Phosphorus, even in small amounts, has been found to foster the initiation of fractures. Of course, much of this metallurgical information has only been learned in the years since the the Titanic went down.

To determine the steel’s mechanical properties, it was subjected to tensile testing, as well as the Charpy V-Notch test, used to simulate rapid loading phenomena; the test used samples oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the original direction of the hull plate. The ductile-brittle transition temperature was found to be 20°C in one direction and 30°C in the other, compared in — 15°C for reference sample of modern A36 steel and a water temperature of -2°C on the night the ship collided with the iceberg. The Titanic steel was shown to have approximately one third of the impact strength of the modern steel.

When the Titanic samples were also examined with a scanning electron microscope, the grain structure of the steel was found to be very large; this coarse structure made it easier for cracks to propagate. Also, approximately three million hydraulically driven rivets were used to hold the hull sections of the Titanic together and it is believed that these rivets may be one of the main reasons why the ship sank. The wrought iron making up the rivets contained more than three times the amount of slag than would be allowed today. Apart from this, rivet holes were cold punched, a method no longer allowed (they must now be drilled), nor were they reamed to remove microcracks. It is suggested that upon impact with the iceberg, the rivet heads broke off, popped the fasteners from their holes and allowed water to rush in between the separated hull plates. The rivets examined from the samples of the Titanic were missing their interior heads. Photographs of the Titanic’s sister ship, the RMS Olympic, taken after it collided with another ship in 1911, support the theory. The photos clearly show vacant holes where rivets had once bee. The steel grain size, the oxygen, sulphur, and phosphorus content of the steel, the slag containing rivets, and cold punched, unreamed rivet holes were found to have contributed to breakup of the Titanic along with the steel’s relatively low ductility at the freezing point of water. The shell plates showed signs of brittle fracture, though some plates demonstrated significant plasticity.

Of course, the science of metallurgy has advanced considerably since the Titanic’s day, the steel used in Titanic was the best available in 1909-1914 when the ship was built. In fact, when 39,000 tons of water entered the bow, no modern ship, not even a welded one, could have withstood the forces that the Titanic experienced during her breakup.

The authors are Post-graduate students from Metallurgical Engineering Department, Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh

05-07-2004, 11:56 AM
So it can be concluded a multifactor was the problem for titanic sinking

Improper process of making steel

more rivets than allowed

Performance of iceberg

Steel chemical propersties

poor impact strength

Lack of analysis tools/seems that the steel is best available steel in 1909.

05-07-2004, 12:28 PM
Hmmmm.... night time impact... icebergs outta nowhere.... so many factors eh ??? It was initially thought that the course to be taken by the TITANIC was iceberg free or atleast with smaller sized ones... but they were caught unawares with that large piece of ice...

Apart from the steel, n other stuff, I think the lack of proper prediction and forecast analysis methods, made it impossible for the builders to conveive and prepare for a situation like this....

As for the movie.... hmmmm... wat to say ?

05-07-2004, 12:46 PM

did you know that only approximately 10% of an iceberg is above the water and the rest 90% are under the water (due to density differences between ice and sea water)


05-07-2004, 12:56 PM
acho cho.............adhu thaan titanic odanji pocchu :(

05-08-2004, 05:00 AM
thanks katteri :b:
so sweet of u ...
wow good homework :P
great ma fRIENd :D

05-08-2004, 05:08 AM
thanks sWEEtie :D
good info .....

05-08-2004, 06:04 AM

05-08-2004, 06:07 AM
great our geethamites :ahha:
i wanna start with the movie taken as "TITANIC"
hope all will contribute..... :P

05-08-2004, 07:06 AM


http://www.geetham.net/photoshow/albums/userpics/15148/normal_sWEEtmICHe%2Bsplit_ship .jpg

The Royal Mail Ship TITANIC was the last grand dream of the Gilded Age.
It was designed to be the greatest achievement of an era of prosperity,
confidence and propriety. Although no one knew it, the world was about
to change drastically. Radio had been invented in 1901. The Wright Brothers
' first successful flight was in 1903. The old presumptions about class,
morals, and gender-roles were about to be shattered. If the concept of
Titanic was the climax of the age, then perhaps its sinking was the curtain
that marked the end of the old drama, and the start of a new one.

The intensely competitive transatlantic steamship business had seen recent
major advances in ship design, size and speed. White Star Line, one of the
leaders, determined to focus on size and elegance rather than pure speed.
In 1907, White Star Line's managing director J. Bruce Ismay and
Lord James Pirrie, a partner in Harland & Wolff (White Star Line's
ship-builder since its founding in 1869) conceived of three magnificent
steam ships which would set a new standard for comfort, elegance,
and safety. The first two were to be named Olympic and Titanic, the
latter name chosen by Ismay to convey a sense of overwhelming size
and strength.

It took a year to design the two ships. Construction of Olympic started
in December, 1908, followed by Titanic in March 1909. The Belfast shipyards
of Harland & Wolff had to be re-designed to accommodate the immense
projects while White Star's pier in New York had to be lengthened to enable
the ships to dock. During the two years it took to complete Titanic's hull,
the press was primed with publicity about the ship's magnificence, making
Titanic virtually a legend before her launch. The "launch" of the completed
steel in May, 1911, was a heavily publicized spectacle. Tickets were sold to
benefit a local children's hospital.

She was then taken for "fitting out" which involved the construction of the
ship's many facilities and systems, her elaborate woodwork and fine decor.
As the date of her maiden voyage approached, the completed Olympic
suffered a collision and required extensive repairs, increasing the workload
at Harland & Wolff, which was already struggling to complete Titanic on
schedule. Titanic's maiden voyage was delayed from March 20 to April 10.

Titanic was 883 feet long (1/6 of a mile), 92 feet wide and weighed
46,328 tons. She was 104 feet tall from keel to bridge, almost 35 feet of
which were below the waterline... even so, she stood taller above the water
than most urban buildings of the time. There were three real smoke-stacks;
a fourth, dummy stack was added largely to increase the impression of her
gargantuan size and power and to vent smoke from her numerous kitchens
and galleys. She was the largest movable object ever made by man. The
ship's immense size and complexity is illustrated by an incident recalled by
Second Officer Lightoller. There was a gangway door on the starboard side
aft "large enough to drive a horse and cart through." Yet three officers who
joined the ship during her preparations spent a whole day simply trying to
find their way to it.

Moreover, she was designed to be a marvel of modern safety technology. She
had a double-hull of 1-inch thick steel plates and a (heavily publicized) system
of 16 water-tight compartments, sealed by massive doors which could be
instantly triggered by a single electric switch on the bridge, or even
automatically by electric water-sensors. The press began to call her "unsinkable."

Her accommodations were the most modern and luxurious on any ocean, and
included electric light and heat in every room, electric elevators, a swimming pool,
a squash court (considered terribly modern), a Turkish Bath, a gymnasium with
a mechanical horse and mechanical camel to keep riders fit, and staterooms and
first class facilities to rival the best hotels on the Continent. First class passengers
would glide down a six-story, glass-domed grand staircase to enjoy haute cuisine
in the sumptuous first class dining saloon that filled the width of the ship on D Deck.
For those who desired a more intimate atmosphere, Titanic also offered a stately
à la carte restaurant, the chic Palm Court and Verandah restaurant, and the
festive Cafe Parisien. She offered two musical ensembles
(rather than the standard one) of the best musicians on the Atlantic, many of
them lured from rival liners. There were two libraries, first- and second-class.
Even the third class (steerage) cabins were more luxurious than the first class
cabins on some lesser steamships, and boasted amenities
(like indoor toilet facilities) that some of Titanic's emigrant passengers had not
enjoyed in their own homes.

The original design called for 32 lifeboats. However, White Star management felt
that the boat-deck would look cluttered, and reduced the number to 20, for a
total life-boat capacity of 1178. This actually exceeded the regulations of the time,
even though Titanic was capable of carrying over 3500 people
(passengers and crew).

The maiden voyage lured the "very best people:" British nobility, American
industrialists, the very cream of New York and Philadelphia society. It also
attracted many poor emigrants, hoping to start a new life in America or Canada.

The journey began at Southampton on Wednesday April 10, 1912 at Noon.
By sundown, Titanic had stopped in Cherbourg, France to pick up additional
passengers. That evening she sailed for Queenstown, Ireland, and at 1:30 PM
on Thursday, April 11, she headed out into the Atlantic.

The seasoned transatlantic passengers were deeply impressed by the new ship.
She was so massive that they barely felt the movement of the sea at all. Her
huge, powerful engines produced almost none of the annoying vibration
common on other steamers, and their noise was barely perceptible. And she
achieved this extraordinary level of comfort while traveling at 22 knots, not
the fastest boat on the route, but certainly one of the top five.

Weather was pleasant and clear, and the water temperature was about
55 degrees. The winter of 1912 had been unusually mild, and unprecedented
amounts of ice had broken loose from the arctic regions. Titanic was equipped
with Marconi's new wireless telegraph system and her two Marconi operators
kept the wireless room running 24 hours a day. On Sunday, April 14, the
fifth day at sea, Titanic received five different ice-warnings, but the captain
was not overly concerned. The ship steamed ahead at 22 knots, and the line's
Managing Director J. Bruce Ismay relished the idea of arriving in New York a
day ahead of schedule.

On the night of April 14, wireless operator Phillips was very busy sending
chatty passenger's messages to Cape Race, Newfoundland, whence they
could be relayed inland to friends and relatives. He received a sixth
ice-warning that night, but didn't realize how close Titanic was to the position
of the warning, and put that message under a paperweight at his elbow.
It never reached Captain Smith or the officer on the bridge.

By all accounts, the night was uncommonly clear and dark, moonless but
faintly glowing with an incredible sky full of stars. The stars were so bright
that one officer mistook the planet Jupiter
(then rising just above the horizon) for a steamship light.

The sea was, likewise, unusually calm and flat, "like glass" said many
survivors. The lack of waves made it even more difficult to spot icebergs,
since there was no telltale white water breaking at the edges of the bergs.

At 11:40, a lookout in the crow's nest spotted an iceberg dead ahead. He
notified the bridge and First Officer Murdoch ordered the ship turned hard
to port. He signaled the engine room to reverse direction, full astern.
The ship turned slightly, but it was much too large, moving much too fast,
and the iceberg was much too close. 37 seconds later, the greatest maritime
disaster in history began. During that night of heroism, terror and tragedy,
705 lives were saved, 1502 lives were lost, and many legends were born.

There are many books and online sources available for further information
on the Titanic. It is worth noting that even the factual information about
Titanic varies widely between the different sources. For all that is known
and theorized about Titanic, it is in many ways still a mystery.

05-08-2004, 08:32 AM




was a 20-year-old artist from Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin.
Orphaned at the age of 15, he worked a variety of jobs. After a stint
as a logger.......... he came to Santa Monica, California, where he drew
portraits on the pier for 10 cents apiece. Working his way from place to
place on tramp steamers and similar accommodations, he went to Paris
where he studied art. Subsequently, he found himself able to return to his
native land in the grandest style possible for one with no money:
sailing on Titanic on a ticket he won in a poker game.


Rose DeWitt Bukater(KATE WINSLET)
was born to one of the very best families in Philadelphia,
was a mere 17 years old when she became engaged to Caledon Hockley.
Intelligent, poised, and beautiful, Rose had been schooled since childhood
to be everything a young woman of society was expected to be. Rose's
betrothal to Hockley, heir to a Pittsburgh steel fortune, was considered
an admirable catch, a perfect pairing of wealth and social position. Yet her
spirit rebelled against the rigid confines and expectations of Edwardian society
controlling her destiny.


Caledon Hockley( BILLY ZANE)
was the 30-year-old scion of a wealthy Pittsburgh steel family. Handsome,
self-confident, rich beyond meaning, he aspired to sophistication and insisted
on propriety. He found in Rose DeWitt Bukater a suitable young woman to fill
the role of wife in his aristocratic future, and he presented her to his peers with
the pride of ownership, basking in others' reaction to her beauty and her
pedigree. As a wedding present for her, he purchased one of the largest and
most valuable diamonds in the world, the legendary blue stone once worn by
Louis XVI known as the Coeur de la Mer - the Heart of the Ocean.


Mrs Margaret "Molly" Brown (KATHY BATES)
was the wife of a Colorado mining millionaire. Intelligent though self-taught --
she spoke several languages -- she was a plain-spoken woman without
background in high society, who was generally shunned by the socialites of
Denver. When Titanic was sinking, she was evacuated in lifeboat #6, under
the command of Quartermaster Hichens. Having been at the wheel of Titanic
when she struck the iceberg, Hichens was completely unnerved and directed
the boat away from the sinking ship as fast as possible. He was terrified that
they would be swamped by the suction as the ship went down, or overwhelmed
by swimmers desperate to be saved. Mrs. Brown and several more women
wanted to return to help save others, but they were overruled by Hichens'
bullying and by the frightened silence of the majority of the lifeboat's passengers.
As Hichens' fears became less and less rational, Mrs. Brown effectively took over
command of the boat and persuaded the women to help with the rowing.
Her heroism and selflessness during the disaster was much talked about
afterwards and earned her the moniker "The Unsinkable Molly Brown."


Ruth DeWitt Bukater(FRANCES FISHER)
mother of Rose, was a society empress from one of the most socially prominent
families in Philadelphia. After the death of her husband, her family fell on
hard times, but she was determined to achieve financial salvation through her
daughter's marriage to Caledon Hockley. A woman who ruled her household
with an iron will, she was intolerant of Rose's rebellious nature, and found in
Cal an ally in her efforts to control Rose.


CaptainEdward J.Smith (BERNARD HILL)
joined White Star Line in 1880 and remained with the company for the rest of his
life. Popular with his crews as well as his passengers, Smith was widely regarded
as a charming, personable officer. He became the captain of choice for many of
the rich and powerful in the transatlantic set, earning the nickname
"the millionaire's captain." Through most of his long career, he had never been
involved, as he recounted in 1907, "in an accident of any sort worth speaking about.
I never saw a wreck and have never been wrecked, nor was I ever in any
predicament that threatened to end in disaster of any sort." White Star had made
it virtually a tradition to have Smith in command on the maiden voyages of its
important ships. At the conclusion of Titanic's maiden voyage, Captain Smith was
scheduled to retire in glory. .....


the 50-year-old Managing Director of White Star Line, was one of the most powerful
men in the shipping industry. Son of Thomas H. Ismay, who founded the line in 1869,
Joseph Bruce Ismay had ascended to the management of the company with his
brothers by the turn of the century. In 1902, the American financier J. Pierpont Morgan,
who was buying shipping companies for his enormous International Mercantile
Marine (IMM) trust, negotiated the purchase of White Star Line. J. Bruce Ismay
alone of his family remained with the company. In 1907, in response to the
competition posed by rival Cunard Line's new mammoth liners Lusitania and
Mauretania, Ismay conceived of a trio of even larger, grander and more luxuriant
ships that would re-assert White Star's dominance of the lucrative and prestigious
transatlantic trade. Titanic was the second of this trio. Ismay sailed on her maiden
voyage, confident that Titanic represented the triumph of his career.


was valet and bodyguard to Caledon Hockley. An ex-Pinkerton with a background
in railroad security, his job was to keep Cal out of trouble and protect the family
name. In the course of his duties, he was ready to use whatever means necessary,
including the threat of physical force, to prevent anyone from interfering with
his employer.


Thomas Andrews(VICTOR GARBER)
then aged 39, was the Managing Director of Harland & Wolff Shipyards, nephew
of Lord Pirrie (Harland & Wolff's chairman), and one of Titanic's main designers.
A tireless workaholic, he had supervised every detail of the ship's construction
and outfitting, and was the world's foremost expert on every aspect of her.
He sailed on Titanic with a hand-picked team of seven experts, the
Harland & Wolff "guarantee group," who spent most of the voyage trouble-shooting
last-minute problems and perfecting the finishing of this, the company's greatest
creation. Andrews himself brought along Titanic's complete blue-prints, and worked
practically non-stop on the voyage, carrying a notebook everywhere, making notes
about imperfections and ideas for improvements. He was, for instance, concerned
that the coat-hooks were attached to the walls with an unsightly number of screws,
which he intended to change.


Fabrizio De Rossi(DANNY NUCCI)
was a young Italian, about 20, with dreams of finding success and happiness in
America. A good friend of Jack Dawson's, he was playing poker in a Southampton
pub on the morning of April 10, 1912, with Jack and two brothers from Sweden.
At 11:55 AM, Jack won the last hand, cleaning out the Swedes of everything
including two third class tickets to New York on Titanic... which was casting off
in precisely 5 minutes He and Jack considered themselves the luckiest men
in the world.
BY sWEEtmICHe :sm30:

05-08-2004, 04:37 PM
A must see page...


05-11-2004, 07:53 AM
yogesh thanks chells.....,
it will be nice if u can put up some pix....... :ahha: