The Mahabharata - [Legend]
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  1. #1

    Default The Mahabharata - [Legend]



    The Mahabharata


    Draupadi


    Last Minute Effort to Avoid War


    Introduction

    Mahabharata (a.k.a. Mahabharat) is a great story of sibling rivalry,
    of complex interwoven sub-stories, of philosophy, divinity, adventure,
    bravery, and betrayal. The characters are very well developed and are
    glorified in great works of Indian art and literature


    Abhimanyu Brave son of Arjuna who fought and died in the war of Mahabharata

    Amba A character from Hindu epic of Mahabharata, she is transformed
    into Shikhandi, a male but impotent warrior

    Ambika Wife of Vichitravirya of Mahabharata' sister of Amba and Ambalika

    Arjuna Son of Kunti and Pandu by the blessings of Indra; a great archer in Mahabharat;
    initiator of the great preaching of Lord Krishna [more]

    Bakasura The crane demon from Mahabharat epic;
    Bhima kills him and saves the village; a demon with a great appetite

    Bhishma Son of Shantanu and the river Ganga;
    his oath of celibacy in Mahabharat is well known [more]

    Draupadi Daughter of king Drupada and common wife of the Pandavas
    in the Mahabharata epic [more]

    Drona A brahmin teacher from Mahabharata epic who taught weaponry
    and warfare to the royalty at Hastinapur; father of Ashwathama

    Drupada King of Panchala kingdom; parent of Draupadi of Mahabharat

    Duryodhana The eldest of the Kouravas and fought the great Mahabharat
    war with the cousins, the Pandavas

    Dwaparayuga The third era according to Hindu mythologies;
    the war of Mahabharata is said to have taken place in this period

    Ekalavya A devoted student in the story of Mahabharata

    Gandeeva The weapon of choice belonging to warrior Arjuna in the
    Mahabharata war

    Jayadratha King of Sindhu kingdom during Mahabharata; son-in-law of
    Dhritarashtra

    Karna Son of Surya and Kunti out of wedlock and raised as a charioteer;
    the tragic hero of Mahabharata epic

    Kripacharya A brahmin of Hastinapur and teacher to the first warrior family of Mahabharat

    Krishna One of the most popular avatar of Lord Vishnu.
    Hero of Mahabharat epic, around whom many legends are woven.

    Kurukshetra The battlefield for the great war of Mahabharat;
    present day Ambala in Uttara Pradesh

    Mahabharat The epic story of Hindus featuring the Pandavas,
    the Kauravas, Krishna and the war of Kurukshetra, written by sage-poet Vyasa.

    Pandavas Half-brothers Yudhishtira, Bheema, Arjuna, Nakula,
    and Sahadeva all children of Kunti are referred to as Pandavas in Mahabharata

    Parashurama The avatar of Vishnu as the angry Brahman with an axe;
    teacher to stalwarts like Drona and Bhishma of Mahabharat

    Razm Nama Persian translation of the Mahabharata made at the command
    of Akbar in the 16th Century

    Shalya a king from Mahabharata; father of Madri

    Uttara the North pole; also a character from Mahabharat --
    the cowardly son of king Virata

    Vyasa Ancient Indian sage and writer of the epic Mahabharata;
    son of Parasar and Satyavati

  2. #2

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    Shantanu Meets the Fishergirl Satyavati and Falls in Love


    Depiction of the Gadayudha Epic


    Bheema Finds Duryodhana Immersed in Water
    Bheema finds Duryodhana in Dwaipavana lake.


    Death of Abhimanyu


    Karna's Predicament


    Bheema Kills Bakasura
    Sculpture shows the Pandava strongman Bheema tearing apart the evil crane Bakasura.


    Duryodhana Hiding Under Water
    Picture from an Illustrated Manuscript
    Notice his holding of the breath and the fish under the water -- Gokarn


    The Sacrifice of Gandhari

  3. #3

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    The Story of the Mahabharata

    The innermost narrative kernel of the Mahabharata tells the story of two sets of paternal first cousins--the five sons of the deceased king Pandu [pronounced PAAN-doo] (the five Pandavas [said as PAAN-da-va-s]) and the one hundred sons of blind King Dhritarashtra [Dhri-ta-RAASH-tra] (the 100 hundred Dhartarashtras [Dhaar-ta-RAASH-tras])--who became bitter rivals, and opposed each other in war for possession of the ancestral Bharata [BHAR-a-ta] kingdom with its capital in the "City of the Elephant," Hastinapura [HAAS-ti-na-pu-ra], on the Ganga river in north central India. What is dramatically interesting within this simple opposition is the large number of individual agendas the many characters pursue, and the numerous personal conflicts, ethical puzzles, subplots, and plot twists that give the story a strikingly powerful development.
    The five sons of Pandu were actually fathered by five Gods (sex was mortally dangerous for Pandu, because of a curse) and these heroes were assisted throughout the story by various Gods, seers, and brahmins, including the seer Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa [VYAA-sa] (who later became the author of the epic poem telling the whole of this story), who was also their actual grandfather (he had engendered Pandu and the blind Dhrtarastra upon their nominal father's widows in order to preserve the lineage). The one hundred Dhartarashtras, on the other hand, had a grotesque, demonic birth, and are said more than once in the text to be human incarnations of the demons who are the perpetual enemies of the Gods. The most dramatic figure of the entire Mahabharata, however, is Krishna Vasudeva [Vaa-su-DAY-va], who was the supreme God Vishnu himself, descended to earth in human form to rescue Law, Good Deeds, Right, and Virtue (all of these words refer to different aspects of "dharma"). Krishna Vasudeva was the cousin of both parties, but he was a friend and advisor to the Pandavas, became the brother-in-law of Arjuna [AR-ju-na] Pandava, and served as Arjuna's mentor and charioteer in the great war. Krishna Vasudeva is portrayed several times as eager to see the purgative war occur, and in many ways the Pandavas were his human instruments for fulfilling that end.

    The Dhartarashtra party behaved viciously and brutally toward the Pandavas in many ways, from the time of their early youth onward. Their malice displayed itself most dramatically when they took advantage of the eldest Pandava, Yudhishthira [Yu-DHISH-thir-a] (who had by now become the universal ruler of the land) in a game of dice: The Dhartarashtras 'won' all his brothers, himself, and even the Pandavas' common wife Draupadi [DRAO-pa-dee] (who was an incarnation of the richness and productivity of the Goddess "Earthly-and-Royal Splendor," Shri [Shree]); they humiliated all the Pandavas and physically abused Draupadi; they drove the Pandava party into the wilderness for twelve years, and the twelve years had to be followed by the Pandavas' living somewhere in society, in disguise, without being discovered for one more year.

    The Pandavas fulfilled their part of that bargain, but the villainous leader of the Dhartarashtra party, Duryodhana [Dur-YODH-ana], was unwilling to restore the Pandavas to their half of the kingdom when the thirteen years had expired. Both sides then called upon their many allies and two large armies arrayed themselves on 'Kuru's Field' (Kuru was one of the eponymous ancestors of the clan), eleven divisions in the army of Duryodhana against seven divisions for Yudhishthira. Much of the action in the Mahabharata is accompanied by discussion and debate among various interested parties, and the most famous sermon of all time, Krishna Vasudeva's ethical lecture and demonstration of his divinity to his charge Arjuna (the justly famous Bhagavad Gita [BHU-gu-vud GEE-ta]) occurred in the Mahabharata just prior to the commencement of the hostilities of the war. Several of the important ethical and theological themes of the Mahabharata are tied together in this sermon, and this "Song of the Blessed One" has exerted much the same sort of powerful and far-reaching influence in Indian Civilization that the New Testament has in Christendom. The Pandavas won the eighteen day battle, but it was a victory that deeply troubled all except those who were able to understand things on the divine level (chiefly Krishna, Vyasa, and Bhishma [BHEESH-ma], the Bharata patriarch who was emblematic of the virtues of the era now passing away). The Pandavas' five sons by Draupadi, as well as Bhimasena [BHEE-ma-SAY-na] Pandava's and Arjuna Pandava's two sons by two other mothers (respectively, the young warriors Ghatotkaca [Ghat-OT-ka-cha] and Abhimanyu [A-bhi-MUN-you ("mun" rhymes with "nun")]), were all tragic victims in the war. Worse perhaps, the Pandava victory was won by the Pandavas slaying, in succession, four men who were quasi-fathers to them: Bhishma, their teacher Drona [DROE-na], Karna [KAR-na] (who was, though none of the Pandavas knew it, the first born, pre-marital, son of their mother), and their maternal uncle Shalya (all four of these men were, in succession, 'supreme commander' of Duryodhana's army during the war). Equally troubling was the fact that the killing of the first three of these 'fathers,' and of some other enemy warriors as well, was accomplished only through 'crooked stratagems' (jihmopayas), most of which were suggested by Krishna Vasudeva as absolutely required by the circumstances.

    The ethical gaps were not resolved to anyone's satisfaction on the surface of the narrative and the aftermath of the war was dominated by a sense of horror and malaise. Yudhishthira alone was terribly troubled, but his sense of the war's wrongfulness persisted to the end of the text, in spite of the fact that everyone else, from his wife to Krishna Vasudeva, told him the war was right and good; in spite of the fact that the dying patriarch Bhishma lectured him at length on all aspects of the Good Law (the Duties and Responsibilities of Kings, which have rightful violence at their center; the ambiguities of Righteousness in abnormal circumstances; and the absolute perspective of a beatitude that ultimately transcends the oppositions of good versus bad, right versus wrong, pleasant versus unpleasant, etc.); in spite of the fact that he performed a grand Horse Sacrifice as expiation for the putative wrong of the war. These debates and instructions and the account of this Horse Sacrifice are told at some length after the massive and grotesque narrative of the battle; they form a deliberate tale of pacification (prashamana, shanti) that aims to neutralize the inevitable miasma of the war.

    In the years that follow the war Dhritarashtra and his queen Gandhari [Gaan-DHAAR-ee], and Kunti [Koon-tee], the mother of the Pandavas, lived a life of asceticism in a forest retreat and died with yogic calm in a forest fire. Krishna Vasudeva and his always unruly clan slaughtered each other in a drunken brawl thirty-six years after the war, and Krishna's soul dissolved back into the Supreme God Vishnu (Krishna had been born when a part of Vishnu took birth in the womb of Krishna's mother). When they learned of this, the Pandavas believed it time for them to leave this world too and they embarked upon the 'Great Journey,' which involved walking north toward the polar mountain, that is toward the heavenly worlds, until one's body dropped dead. One by one Draupadi and the younger Pandavas died along the way until Yudhishthira was left alone with a dog that had followed him all the way. Yudhishthira made it to the gate of heaven and there refused the order to drive the dog back, at which point the dog was revealed to be an incarnate form of the God Dharma (the God who was Yudhishthira's actual, physical father), who was there to test Yudhishthira's virtue. Once in heaven Yudhishthira faced one final test of his virtue: He saw only the Dhartarashtras in heaven, and he was told that his brothers were in hell. He insisted on joining his brothers in hell, if that be the case! It was then revealed that they were really in heaven, that this illusion had been one final test for him. So ends the Mahabharata!


    http://web.utk.edu/~jftzgrld/MBh1Story.html

  4. #4

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    ALL ARE WELCOME TO COMMENTS N SHARE ......!! :D

  5. #5
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    unkalukku pidicha character yaaru??


    enakku karnantai character romba pidikkum.......
    Karna Son of Surya and Kunti out of wedlock and raised as a charioteer;
    the tragic hero of Mahabharata epic



    athusari......mhakabharatha sandaikku yaar kaaranam??

  6. #6

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    Wow... I like it very much.It is useful for kids.

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